Ever since civilizations started to form, humans have been actively growing crops for their benefit. Farmlands are our basic life necessity. They’re found all around the world. After facing various famines and scientific revolutions, we have expanded the lands we could use for farming. Now, farmlands form the economic backbone of many countries.
In the current era, there is competition over resources; naturally, all countries have enough resources to extract food for their population, but lack of irrigation, management, and trade routes affect the output efficiency of those farmlands. Here is the list of countries that excel in these qualities.
China has a variety of climates, ranging from cold mountains to plains. Almost half of that is used as farmland. China produces rice, wheat, potatoes, tomato, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, corn, and soybeans. China has four major plateaus: the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Loess Plateau, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, and the Inner Mongolia Plateau.
5.2 million sq. km of land in China is used as farmland which roughly makes half of the country. That accounts for China being a major exporter of grains worldwide. This land accounts for 10% of the world’s farming land.
But it’s not just the natural landscape of China that gets all the credit; the Chinese government has been actively making policies for the benefit of farmers and providing special tax reliefs plus subsidies for agricultural work.
The climate of the USA is variable due to the large area it covers and various geographic features, including deserts, plains, mountains, and tropical zones. It is not only the world’s largest producer of soy and maize but also produces a large amount of wheat, sugar beet, sugar cane, potato, tomatoes, rice, grape, orange, apple, onion, and cotton
The USA has focused on advanced farming and is one of the world’s leading countries in more efficient farming methods. This is quite convenient as it produces almost every type of crop and fruit. Almost 4 million sq. km of American land is farmland, which contributes to the agricultural industry as one of the largest sectors of the American economy.
Australia is an isolated island with distinct features, which gives it the advantage of uniqueness. Agriculture has been historically important in the development of this country; they still dominate in wool and wheat production. The main crops in Australia are wheat, barley, oats, rice, and maize.
Australian farming is characterized by large-scale mechanized and highly efficient operations. In recent years there has been political pressure on the agricultural sector to reduce the subsidies given to farmers. Australia leads the world in certified organic farming with more than half of the world’s organic agriculture area.
3.58 sq. km of Australian land is farmland which includes vast pastures for cattle, fields of fruit trees, and seasonal crops.
Brazil comprises 60 percent of the amazon rainforest, and it also has one of the biggest farms in the world. It started focusing on sugar cane, but now Brazil exports large amounts of coffee, soybeans, and crop-based ethanol. It is also known for its fruits like orange, banana, mango and, grape.
The country is self-sufficient in the basic food requirements of its population, and it has also been increasing its cultivated area since World War 2. The tropical climate of Brazil makes it a good location for tropical trees. Almost 2.3 million sq. km of Brazilian land is used as farmland.
70% of agricultural land in Kazakhstan is permanent pasture land, meaning it does not directly affect the exports of the country. The climate in Kazakhstan is continental and a little arid. The temperatures range from -4°F in winter to 86°F in summer.
Climate plus the terrain is good for wheat crops, making Kazakhstan one of the leading wheat producers. Other than that, it also produces barley, potato, watermelon, flax, melon, sunflower seed, and maize.
Even though this country has over 2 million square kilometers of farmland, the agriculture industry is not thriving. This is mainly due to the lack of infrastructure and focus on cattle, which is why it hopes to become a beef export giant.
Most of the area governed by the Russian Federation is uncultivated, but still, it is one of the largest producers of wheat, sugar beet, potato, barley, sunflower seed, maize, and oats. The global warming impact on Russian agriculture is assessed as favorable as it has lowered the severity of winter cold.
Almost 13% of Russian land is used for farming. A large portion of this country’s land is uncultivable due to severe cold. The remaining arable land is used 60% for crops and the rest for pastures; Russia has competed in the global market despite these drawbacks.
India once controlled 27% of the world’s economy, but its political conditions have made its efforts counter-productive. It has many mountain series in the North, a few deserts, and the rest are plains. Being a tropical country has been beneficial for India’s economy.
Agriculture employed more than 50% of the workforce in 2018 in India. The largest agricultural products of India are rice, wheat, cotton, mangoes, guavas, vegetables, sugar cane, and banana, etc. 1.7 million sq. km of Indian land is used for farmland, accounting for 17-18% of the country’s GDP.
8. Saudi Arabia
Historically a desert country, but with the help of major irrigation projects, large desert areas have been converted into agricultural fields. The cultivable land is still under process, so the country is not a major producer of many crops.
1.7 million square kilometers of farmland exists in Saudi Arabia, it is undoubtedly the second largest producer of date, but it also produces watermelon, barley, wheat, potato, tomato and, sorghum, etc.
Agricultural goods form over half of Argentina’s exports. It is one of the largest agricultural countries in South America. Apart from the grains such as soy, wheat, barley, and maize, this country also produces honey, grape, sugarcane, peach and, banana.
Argentina covers a vast range of latitudes, so it has variable climates all across the country. It is home to 1.4 million square kilometers of farmland with a location that allows many kinds of crop production.
Mongolia is a high-altitude country with a cold climate. This makes a harsh environment for farming, so most people depend on pastures and wander their cattle. There have been various attempts by the government to improve the agriculture of Mongolia, and the production is steadily improving.
1.1 out of 1.5 million sq. km is cultivable land in Mongolia which mostly exists as pastureland now. It mainly produces corn, wheat, barley, and potatoes.
These statistics are according to the World Bank Group collected in 2018. These countries cover 25.7 out of 47.9 million sq. km of farmland in the world, which include arable lands, lands with crops, and pasture lands.
The division of farmlands among countries depends on their area, which is why India has more farmland than the UK. Then it comes to their infrastructure and irrigation; this is why many European countries have more farmland according to their area. Another factor that counts is the country’s location, which helps the USA own more farmland than Russia.